The code LISE: version 4.20
Calculations of energy loss
and straggling in matter
1. ATIMA (ATomic Interaction with MAtter)
4.1. Angular straggling
5.1. Range plot
5.2. Physical Calculator
1. ATIMA (ATomic Interaction with MAtter)
Some of the ATIMA subroutines (Version 1.2) have been incorporated into the new version of the LISE code. ATIMA is a user program developed at GSI, which calculates various physical quantities characterizing the slowing-down of protons and heavy ions in matter for specific kinetic energies ranging from 1 keV/u to 500 GeV/u, such as
ATIMA is available under UNIX. The FORTRAN source of ATIMA has been transformed to C, and was optimized to exclude creating range files for spline procedures. Please report your suggestions for ATIMA via electronic mail to either firstname.lastname@example.org or c.scheidenberger@gsi or email@example.com. The web-site of this code is http://www-aix.gsi.de/~scheid/ATIMA1.html.
Fig.1.The "Production menu" dialog. The section setting energy losses and straggling calculation methods.
More details about the physics used in the ATIMA calculations can be found in the following references [Lin96, Sch98, Wei00].
New energy loss and straggling calculation method settings are available via the "Production mechanism" dialog box (see Fig.1).
2. Stopping power. Energy loss
Four stopping power calculation methods are available in the LISE code (the abbreviation is like in the code):
The "ATIMA 1.2 without LS-correction" method was incorporated to show the influence of the LS-correction. After the various tests for different energies and projectile-target combinations we recommend to use for calculations the following methods:
The user can plot energy loss distributions as a function of energy using the "Plot of Fragment Energy Loss (dE/dx) in Target versus Energy" item in the Utilities menu (see Fig.2).
Fig.2.208Pb energy losses in Be calculated by different methods.
In previous versions the user could create this plot only for a combination beam-target given in the "Projectile" and "Target" menus. In the new version the user can set the necessary combination and choose units (micron or mg/cm2) directly ahead of plot creation via a dialog shown in Fig.3.
Fig.3. The dialog setting the projectile-target combination to plot range or energy loss distributions versus energy.
The calculation of energy loss in material is most efficiently performed using a backward interpolation on a table of range calculations. The LISE code is capable to fill ten tables for different combinations (particle, target, calculation method) and to save them in memory in cyclic order. In other words the 11-th combination will be written down in the table instead the first one. This procedure accelerates calculation of run and losses of energy. The user can plot range distributions from energy using the "Plot of Range in Target versus Energy" item in the Utilities menu (see Fig.4).
Fig.4.208Pb ranges in Be calculated by different methods.
4. Energy-loss and ranges straggling
The LISE code has got a new method for calculating energy-loss straggling (which is based on the ATIMA subroutines) in addition to the [Gui86] method, already existing in the program. The Methods of range straggling calculation were reconsidered. Now the user has two opportunities:
It is recommended to use the ATIMA subroutines to calculate energy-loss straggling using the method "interpolation from table". The user can plot range distributions as a function of energy using the "Plot of Range in Target versus Energy" item in the "Utilities" menu as in the case plot ranges (see Fig.5).
Fig.5.208Pb range straggling in Be calculated by different methods.
4.1 Angular straggling
Two methods to calculate the angular straggling are available in the program LISE: [Ann88] and [Par98]. It is recommended to use the [Ann88] method.
5.1 Range plot
Plot "Range in material" subroutines have been reconsidered. In the new version are used table range stragglings instead "integration" method in previous versions.
Fig.6.36S Range distribution in Si. Initial energy distribution of 36S is delta-function at 45.1 AMeV.
Statistical characteristics of range distribution (Fig.6) are shown in Fig.7. Compare these values with Physical calculator calculations in Fig.8 for the same case.
5.2 Physical Calculator
A range straggling is available in the Physical calculator dialog (see A in Fig.8). Methods used to calculate energy loss, straggling, charge states distributions the can observe also (see b in Fig.8)
Fig.8.The Physical calculator dialog.
The LISE program authors thank Dr.H.Weick and Prof.H.Geissel for the help rendered at adaptation of the ATIMA program in our program, and also for the useful remarks at work above the documentation of this version, and also hope for the further cooperation in development of the LISE program.
[Ann88] R.Anne et al, NIM B34 (1988) 295-308.
[Gui86] D.Guillemaud-Mueller et al.,IEEE 33(1986)343.
[Hub90] F. Hubert et al., Atom. Dat. and Nucl. Dat. Tabl. 46 (1990) 1-213.
[Lin96] J.Lindhard, A.H.Sorensen, Phys.Rev. A53 (1996) 2443.
[Par98] Particle Physics Booklet, 1998, pp.184,185;http://pdg.lbl.gov; (extracted from the Review of Particle Physics C3 (1998) 1).
[Sch98] C. Scheidenberger, H. Geissel, NIM B 135 (1998) 25.
[Wei00] H.Weick et al., NIM B164-165 (2000) 168-179.
[Zie85] J.F.Ziegler et al, Pergamon Press, NY, 1985;